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        Science Degree Program in China - Fungus

        1. Introduction

        Fungus is a kind of eukaryote. Fungus are usually filamentous and multicellular organisms, the trophosome, in addition to large fungus, the differentiation is very small. High and large bacteria have the shape of the sub entity. Except for a few exceptions, fungi have clear cell walls, which usually do not exercise, and reproduce by spores. The most common fungi are also all kinds of mushrooms, fungi including molds and yeasts. It has been found more than seventy thousand kinds of fungi, only less than half of all existing estimates. Most of the fungi were originally divided into animals or plants, now becoming their own world, divided into four. Fungi become one, and the difference between plants, animals and bacteria. Fungi and other three greatest biological differences, fungal cells containing chitin (also known as chitin) as the main component of the cell wall, different from that the cell walls of plants are mainly composed of cellulose.

        2. Classification

        The morphology of the fungus is diverse, generally divided into single cells and multicellular, yeasts are unicellular, and mold and fungi (large fungus) are multicellular fungi, they belong to different subdivisions. Macrofungi refers to fleshy or gelatinous fruiting body or sclerotia formation. Most of them belong to basidiomycotina and a few of them belong to ascomycotina.

        The fungal cells have neither chloroplast nor plasmid. They absorb and decompose the organic matter in the animal, the dead body, the dead body and their waste, and the branches, leaves and soil humus, as well as their own nutrients. Heterotrophic ways of fungi are parasitic and saprophytic.

        3. Two Major Structures

        1) Trophosome

        The structure of the vegetative growth stage is called the trophosome. Trophosome of most fungi are filamentous which can be branched, single filaments called hypha. Many hyphae are collectively referred to as the mycelium. The morphology of the mycelium growing on the substrate is called colony.

        2) The reproductive body

        When the vegetative life is carried on to a certain stage, the fungi begin to turn to the reproduction stage, and form a variety of reproductive body, namely fruitingbody. Fungal reproduction includes asexual spores formed by asexual reproduction and sexual spores formed by sexual reproduction.

        4. Modes of Reproduction

        1) Asexual reproduction

        2) Sexual reproduction

        5. System Classification

        1) Chytridiomycota

        2) Zygomycota

        3) Ascomycota

        4) Basidiomycota

        5) Deuteromycetes

        6. Related Concepts

        False hyphae

        Antibiotics

        7. Mold

        Mold is also known as “filamentous bacteria", belonging to genus fungi. The body is filamentous, clusters, can produce a variety of forms of spores. Most are saprophytism. There are many types, commonly are rhizopus, mucor, aspergillus and penicillium, etc.

        8. Yeasts

        The reproductive mode of yeast is divided into two categories: asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction.

        Asexual reproduction includes: budding, fission, bud crack.

        Mode of sexual reproduction: ascospore.

        9. Candida

        Candida is the yeast that can form pseudohypha and no ascospore.

        10. Toxicity and Pathogenic

        Human pathogenic fungi can be divided into shallow fungus and deep fungi, the former violates the skin, hair, nails, is chronic, to treatment with intractable, but has a smaller body effect, which can violate the whole body organs, serious can cause death. In addition, some fungi parasitic in food, feed, food, can produce toxic fungal disease caused by toxins.

        11. Fungi and Life

        1) Environmental recycling

        2) Food and fungi

        3) Pathogenic fungi

        4) Fungi resistant to disease

        12. Symbiotic Relationship

        The root and fungi of plants also have a symbiotic relationship, and the root of the fungus is called the root of the fungi.

        1) Ectomycorrhizae

        2) Endomycorrhizae

        3) Ecto and endo mycorrhizae

        13. Difference from Bacteria

        Plants and animals are composed of cells, cells have a nucleus, and microbial fungi only has real nuclei and intact organelles, so it is also called eukaryotic microbe; bacteria of only the original nuclear structure, nuclear membrane and nucleolus, organelles rarely, belonging to the prokaryotic microorganism; and the virus is not cell structure, belonging to the indigenous microorganisms. So, although some fungi are also very small, but also make people sick, but it has the essence of the difference between bacteria and viruses.

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